James Beal, EMF Interface Consulting, New Orleans, LA, with assist of Marcus Barnes, P.E., Aerodyne Laboratories, Austin, TX and Charles Wallach, Ph.D., Behavioral Research Associates, Canoga Park, CA.

Prepared for posterboard presentation at the 1996 Annual Review of Research on Biological Effects of Electric & Magnetic Fields, sponsored by DOE/EPRI/EPA, San Antonio, TX, November 17-21, 1996.


1. To propose that the origins of terrestrial biological life may have required:

a. the presence of EMF flux of different waveforms and intensities

b. the prevalence and interaction, within the living cell, of a variety of biological liquid crystal (LC) forms which provide fundamental support and/or detection mechanisms for quantum-level sensitivity.

2. To present hypotheses for several mechanisms which appear to support the evolution of ultra-sensitive, probably interacting, EMF detection mechanisms.

3. To present a brief overview about effects from EMFs received by and associated with biosystems with an emphasis on the existence and increase of the human Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Syndrome (EHS)


What are liquid crystals (LCs)?

In 1888, Reinitzer discovered "Living Materials", Liquid organic solutions which show intermediate LC phases before crystalizing on cooling. Phase molecules behave like liquids and flow, but also exhibit properties of crystals. Rod-shaped organic molecules, are about 25 Angstroms in length. Their ordering is a function of temperature (thermotropic) or solvent concentration (lyotropic).

LCs are birefringent and the most optically active substances known.

LCs are major components of the biological membranes which define the shape of cells and organelles. Biological membranes are thin layers of protein and lipid that permit the compartmentalization of living matter. Proteins are the functional units of cell membranes and perform biological activities such as the transport of nutrients into cells, the removal of waste materials from cells and the transmission of signals into cells.

It is the lipid molecules of biological membranes that exist in an LC state and provide a matrix for membrane proteins to perform their function.

Other major classes of compounds (proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids) exist in LC phases under well-defined conditions.

LCs seem to play an important part in systemic effects (healing or harming) by sensing and responding to very minute changes in temperature, light, mechanical stress, chemical concentrations and EMF potentials.

They may also selectively store energy information patterns received from physical and emotional events (traumas and transformations).

LCs appear to provide quantum energy detecting mechanisms, supporting:

a. Discrete biological sensing systems for light, sound, taste, smell, mechanical pressure, and temperature.

b. Whole-body sensing for automatic (subliminal) maintenance of body health and survival in an ever-changing environment.

The study of LCs is gaining an ever-increasing role in condensed matter physics and macro-molecular science, as well as in commercial applications [1].

Therefore, it is very important to know the properties of LC materials in order to better understand EMF-related biological processes [2].

a. Nematic -- Flat-plate visual displays and optical switches (most popular usage) where the rod-like molecules line up like iron filings, when activated by a low voltage source, rotating the polarization of light to create an opaque on-or-off shutter-like effect. The rod-shaped organic molecules are not in discrete layers.

b. Cholesteric -- a special kind of chiral (twisted) nematic LC of ordered, discrete layers, exhibiting dichromism which produces iridescent color changes when layers rotate, due to energy from thermal, chemical, pressure and EMF sources.

c. Chiral Smectic 'C' Ferroelectric -- the latest development in LC technology is high density inexpensive optical storage [3]. holographic data storage and retrieval densities of approximately 3 Gbit in2 (!) has been achieved with current systems. Much higher density storage systems are expected. The new technique involves the use of polarized light to induce discrete molecular layer alignment with high spatial resolution. Varying the polarization direction varies the LC chiral twist angle; the light (energy) transmittance of each region varies with the twist angle, thus much information can be stored in and retrieved from each molecular layer.


The Planetary Resonator Hypothesis (Graf & Cole) [4, 5]

Intense fields and frequencies of Pre-Cambrian earth and Van Allen belts 2 billion years ago produced active planetary resonator (0.1 - 100Hz) with strong 10 Hz feedback component, catalyzing amino acids and providing directing force in polymer structure and activity.

An ultra-sensitive, individuated, protein transceiver biocommunications mechanism, reacting to static (DC) and time-varying (AC) fields, is postulated to produce the 'frequency window' effect, and to act as a physiologic regulator and a transduction device for an external timing signal.

As dipoles bearing a net charge, proteins would tend to orient themselves in the external time-changing, 10 Hz resonant EMF [6-8]. Thus, during millions of years of evolution, changes in protein structure would have had to conform to the dynamics of the 10 Hz external field. Proteins thus evolved would be extremely sensitive to ELF changes in the 10 Hz region in much the same way the eye has evolved to be sensitive to the visible spectrum.

Properties of the signal which life forms emit and/or receive:

a. Is common to all and between all life forms, i.e. plant to plant, plant to animal, even cell to cell.

b. Is transmitted and received with energies available to life systems, again even with the energy within a single cell.

c. Is unattenuated by great distances, the atmosphere, oceans and the usual conducting materials.

d. Is not present in, but may be affected by, inanimate objects.

e. Can contain codified information.

None of the characteristics above are inconsistent with a very efficient and highly evolved ELF transceiver system in biosystems. Such sensitivity in biosystems is evidenced by the energy quanta detection capabilities of the ear, the eye and other sensory systems in animals and humans. In the case of humans, the system is reacting to some sort of stress stimuli, as allergic reactions [9-11] to specific frequencies and waveforms, that disrupt normal neural pathways.

The Wave Interaction Hypothesis (Hagan & Reid) [13, 14]

Just as the material units of existence, atoms and basic particles, can be viewed as waves or particles, depending on the observational frame chosen by the physicist, so also can biochemical macromolecules, the units of biological existence, be viewed as waves or particles by the biologist. This unusual hypothesis proposes that the flux of different waveforms which floods biological systems provides an interference pattern, whose energetic distribution forms a scaffold for the construction of biological forms. This is somewhat analogous to magnetic particles attracted into a 3-d pattern around a strong magnetic field -- only in this case the organic molecules would be polarized and react in a similar way to dielectric forces.

In this way the biological whole becomes the Fourier transform of the parts and histological pattern becomes the determinant of macroscopic form. Evidence is offered suggesting that biological forms follow the energy patterns laid down by the environment. It is proposed that the ability of biopolymers to re-radiate coherent waveforms derived from the environment has given evolved systems the autonomy which has allowed a free and prolific evolution. This coherent illumination can be analyzed by Fourier methods and this shows that the results are peculiarly appropriate for biological systems. The Gaussian waveform is all-important and may explain the influence of homogeneous and heterogeneous DNA in cell surface kinetics, hybridization and carcinogenesis."

If we accept that local EMF patterns are important control factors in growth processes, then long-range patterns of the same type would also influence these processes. Patterns are found in many research papers, showing geophysical, lunar, and solar influences on living systems [4, 5, 13-18, 22-27].

Cell surface steroids and sugars, which exert a strong influence on cell function, are optically active (Liquid Crystals) and can function as spatial filters, optical rotators, or diffraction gratings to achieve a modifying influence on tissue during its formation in morphogenesis. Thus, tissue formed on a diffraction pattern (an energy pattern, or scaffold) can itself become a modifying influence for subsequent tissue growth.

It would seem, therefore, that biological organisms, from a prebiotic congruency with environmental waveforms at a primeval level [4, 5] to the sophisticated cycling of human integration with solar and lunar periodicity at an evolved level, have been so harmoniously integrated with and dependent upon environmental flux that it seems to have almost disappeared, in much the same way as a man may not notice the well fitting clothes he is wearing or the essential activities of his internal organs (or, like water to a fish!). The 'Ghost In The Machine' which Koestler has drawn to our attention might well be an optical transform.

Fröhlich [28] proposes that coherent vibrational sources exist in energized biopolymers (this implies diffraction patterns..and Liquid Crystal information storage capabilities). Some, in the brain, may have become specialized to form and process images and store information similar to the hologram [3]. Energy interference patterns, similar to holography, have been hypothesized by Karl Pribram and others to explain certain processes of brain memory storage [29].

Integrated Mechanisms (Persinger) [30]

If ELF electric and magnetic fields were involved with the formation of life forms [4, 5], then these fields should still influence those diffuse but essential processes that were available to life-forms at that time. Reflexively catalytic reaction series (reflexive cycles), an emergence condition for origin of life would be specifically affected because of their time variation. One of the most common properties of biological systems is the ability to maintain ion-molecular concentration disparities through the use of membrane selective permeability. Such selectivity is in large part governed by a precariously balanced structure of lipoproteins that has been called the liquid crystal condition. There is strong evidence that lipids and lipoproteins are involved with other basic life processes relevant to ELF field interactions. Rhythmicities in heart cells are intrinsically related to lipid levels. Lipid solvents, which change membrane selectivities to the ionic milieu, are important anesthetics (is this what is affected by the electroanesthetic process [31] ?) and toxicants. The reported intense attraction of peripheral nerves to magnetic fields also seems dependent upon lipid structure.

The liquid crystal condition of lipids at life temperature, water concentration, and pH (charge) exhibit a lamellar structure that is characterized by selective permeability. In this narrow band of environmental conditions, the bilamellar or "smectic mesophasic" structure is quite stable. Theoretical calculations indicate that when local variations in charges are increased (1.25 to 2.0 charges per phospholipid molecule), the "cylindrical miscelle" (microtubule) has lower free energy than the bilayer which consequently becomes unstable [32]. With greater numbers of cylindrical micelles, increased numbers of "holes" occur in the membrane and permeabilities are changed.

Certainly this model could explain many ELF field research results. Weak EMFs that produced localized changes in charge density could alter the conditions required for liquid crystal conditions, and consequently produce small changes within the viable limits of the system. Changes in phospholipid membrane properties or variations of specific cations, e.g., Na+, K+, Ca++, known to be controlled by membrane properties have been frequently reported in ELF research.

Biogenic Magnetite Mechanism (Kirschvink) [33-36]

LC properties in living systems may provide the basic support for several of the background mechanisms proposed to explain the biosystem effects of natural and artificial EMFs. In this case the LCs in their various biosystem forms may react to amplify unusual internal or external energy inputs, transmitting their sensing reactions to stimulate other systems, e.g., immune system response, melatonin production, various symptoms, etc.. Biogenic magnetite is found primarily in the brain and highly enervated ethmoid sinus area in humans. It is also found in specific brain areas of insects, fish, birds and mammals, and more concentrated in the brains of migratory creatures which must get their cues from geomagnetic variations and patterns. This biomagnetite is most likely concentrated in a differentiated cell type (a magnetocyte) which might contain thousands of magnetosomes (individual crystals of single-domain molecular size).

In the almost quantum-energy detection level of biological sensors to EMFs, the LCs in these areas may play an important part in detecting and amplifying the effects of EMFs on the magnetosomes -- perhaps providing fixed storage of environmental geo-electromagnetic patterns for migration/navagation purposes.

Dr. Kirschvink states: [36]

The discovery of biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) in a variety of human tissues suggests that it may be responsible for some of the reported effects of weak, ELF magnetic fields. A previous analysis suggests that individual crystals of magnetite of single domain size could contribute enough mechanical energy to activate trans-membrane ion channels. Detailed analysis of the magnetic property data from human tissues (normal and pathological) indicate the presence of substantial magnetic intergrain interaction effects. This implies that biological averaging of ELF EMF effects at the cell membrane is a possibility.

Since biogenic magnetite seems to be ubiquitous in the environment, it may have played a basic role in the initial development of living systems and vaious sensing mechanisms. There is much evidence that biological forms follow the energy patterns laid down by the waveforms of the environment. Electromagnetic vibration can rearrange molecules and macro-molecules into patterned forms (sound, RF, microwave, heat, light, etc.) Lissajou or Chladni figures produced in liquid and solids, appear as structural biological patterns in simple organisms (diatoms, for example) [13].

Induced Electric Currents (Eddy Currents) Mechanism (Lerchl, [81]

In summary, the reference states:

During the past decade, a number of reports indicated that the mammalian pineal gland is magnetosensitive in terms of spatial orientation. This indication is based on observations that artificial alterations of the direction of the earth's magnetic field (MF) markedly decreased the gland's capability to synthesize melatonin. These findings, however, seem paradoxical since animals as well as humans experience such alterations whenever they turn their heads. Therefore, the potential of the pineal for sensing magnetic fields was re-investigated. During the dark phase, rats were exposed to repeatedly inverted MFs, generated by two identical pairs of Helmholtz coils; one pair connected to a power supply automatically, the other pair manually using an integrated potentiometer. Only the pineals of animals exposed to the automatically activated field responded with a reduced activity of the rate-limiting enzyme serotonin-N-acetyltransferase, lower melatonin levels and increases in serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. Hence, MF exposure itself did not affect the pineal. Rather, induced eddy currents in the animals, resulting from rapid On/Off transients of the artificially applied MF, affect the pineal gland either directly, or, more likely, indirectly, via an action on the neural input. The eddy current mechanism is most likely the explanation.

Every change of a MF produces an electric field. Depending on the tissue exposed to such a field, an appropriate eddy current occurs, depending on the tissue's conductivity. Hence, if an animal is exposed to a rapidly changing MF, an induced eddy current occurs that may affect the nervous system. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the synaptic transmission is affected by exposure to electric fields.


The above mechanism may interact with biogenic magnetite and other metal ions in biosensor tissues and fluids, pershaps combining with other mechanisms mentioned herein, thus stimulating various liquid crystal and cellular responses to the information perceived.

Non-Linear Mechanisms (Byrd) [37]

Recent work indicates that low-intensity, nonlinear, ELF and low intensity ELF pulse-modulated fields influence various physiological and behavioral processes in cells, tissue, animals, and humans [38]. Major shifts in calcium efflux occur with fields that produce very small gradients in the extracellular space (interstitial fluids) surrounding cell membranes [39]. The extracellular fields are about 10-7 V/cm, far below transmembrane gradients of 10-3 V/cm associated with a typical synaptic depolarization. This implies that cells can act as sensitive detectors of ELF signals. This apparent capability has led to specific alteration of cell function, including hormone and insulin decrease, accelerated wound healing and bone growth, interference with nerve conduction, entrainment of cell transcription processes, and alteration of brain chemistry.

The effects range from alteration of the firing rates of neurons in the brain, calcium-ion binding disruption on cell surfaces in the brain, to response time...[and] respiration rate changes, and even putting an animal to sleep...[and] spectral components in the kHz range appear to cause effects selectively in bone tissue.

Behavioral modification in animals [30] as the result of weak (as low as 10 *W/cm2) microwaves include induction of grooming responses, altered heart and respiration rates, epileptiform seizures, and various others. The lower the power, the more immediate the effect, provided an effect was present [38]. Also noted is an adaptivity to the signals. The greatest response occurs on first exposure; repeated exposures yield a decreasing effect.

We have demonstrated that Mast cells in the brain can be degranulated in rats, dumping stores of histamine, heparin, and other substances into the brain [30, 40].

It has been repeatedly demonstrated that cells can sense the EMF environment and respond to three orders of magnitude lower than self-generated fields. The dielectric behavior [7, 8, 13] of biosystems in conjunction with nonlinear excitation can give rise to solitary, nondispersive 'soliton'waves [41, 42, 37]. More than 90% of living matter consists of polar molecules of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and water. Depending on microscopic properties, the energy supply may either make a system hot or result in a new type of order.

These observations [12, 37, 39, 43-45,] indicate that investigation of nonlinear molecular information transfer processes may provide a fundamental quantum mechanical model of the life process itself!

Combined Self-Organized Macroscopic and Microscopic Mechanisms (Walleczek, et. al.) [46]

This model presents a unique combination of mechanisms to deal with both the energetic and the informational aspects occurring during biological EMF coupling. Their simulation results demonstrated EMF response patterns showing dependences on:

a. The field frequency, in a nonlinear, resonance-like fashion ('frequency windows'.)

b. The field amplitude, in a nonlinear, resonance-like fashion ('amplitude windows'.)

c. The combination of appropriate static (DC) and time-varying (AC) fields.

d. The internal biodynamical state of the field-exposed system.

e. The system's capacity for high-gain amplifications of initially small microphysical field effects.

f. The system's capacity to stabilize and maintain field effects in the presence of relatively large incoherent (noise) perturbations.

The model predicted that amplitude and frequency-dependent resonances and the other complex dynamical behaviors may result from primary field interactions in combination with self-organized biochemical states.

It was suggested that neither thermodynamic/energetic concepts nor bioinformational concepts alone would lead to realistic models of EMF biological interactions; only approaches capable of integrating energetic and informational mechanisms.

Biosystem Effects Associated With EMFs:

Geoelectromagnetic signal information may play a survival role in: [47-49] navigation, migration/location/orientation, and biological rhythms. There is also anticipation/detection of subtle or catastrophic changes in seasonal variations, weather, hurricane/tornado, and earthquakes.

How much of this information do we humans use or react to unconsciously in our daily life and how much is trainable latent talent? Consider the excellent sensitivities of the Australian aborigines and martial arts masters. As understanding increases about our long-term health dependence on natural and artificial EMF factors, our environmental awareness will be increased (on several levels!).

Trends indicate, in insect, fish, bird, primates and human research that continual long-term exposure to EMF pulse rates, intensities and waveforms in specific ranges, may produce behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions in the living systems exposed [9, 47, 48, 50-59].

EMF signal information between biosystems [47, 49] includes detection/avoidance of predators, self-protection, communication, detection/attraction of food and mates and establishing territory.


Research to date, primarily on aquatic lower vertebrates, clearly indicates that these animals can sense very weak electric fields. So far, this ability has been found in many marine and freshwater fish, several amphibian species; and the platypus. Sharks and rays are most sensitive to frequencies below 50 Hz and stimuli to 1 *V/cm. Many electric fish emit signal pulses of a broad range of frequences or in continuous waves of constant frequency depending on species. The discharge of an electric eel can be in excess of 600 volts. Studies of "specialists" such as electric fish will continue to provide insight fundamental to understanding the more complex nervous systems of higher animals, and finally, humans.

Human Reactions To EMFs

It has long been established (30+ years) that controlled specific pulse-type (sharp rise time or square-wave) waveforms and various frequencies can be used for:

a. Electrotherapies [6, 9-11, 60] -- allergy suppression, pain suppression, bone healing and addiction treatment.

b. Electrosleep/electroanesthesia [31] -- insomnia & ulcer treatment and surgical interventions.

c. Prosthetics [42, 62, 63] -- noninvasive, wearable, heart pacemakers and artificial, noncontact visual and audio brain inputs (without light or sound).


Known EMF factors used in medical applications on humans involve the whole spectrum of emf energies and pulses from D.C. to ionizing radiation, involving various combinations of frequency, waveforms, intensity, rise/fall time, temporal gradients, pulse rates, polarization, etc. These are already providing invaluable inputs for medical and psychological diagnoses and applications.

Unknown time-varying emf power frequency factors, primarily from exposure at work or in the home, not specifically powerlines, may involve all of the above, especially additional long-term spikes and transients which may occur in the electrical system, plumbing and appliances of the bedroom sleeping area or in all-day limited-movement working areas.

The applications mentioned above are considered the body-penetrating effects of the magnetic field pulsing components and have been primarily conducted in other countries.

In this country the electric field is not considered a health factor, because it does not penetrate the body. However, the whole-body acupuncture system, in all living things, is associated with healing. It is more primitive (analog) than the nerve system (digital) [57], and has discrete electrical components that change slowly with time. It appears to be affected by mind, body and environmental changes, and thus may respond to electric field changes (natural and artificial). Perhaps the acupuncture total body surface system acts as a sort of 'transceiver', transmitting and receiving subliminal information on many different levels about EMF variations (external and internal) which may then, through LC detection/amplification, stimulate (or indicate) body, mind and healing reactions, maintaining body homeostasis.

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Syndrome (EHS)

The role of mast cells in immunological reactions in animals [30, 37] and humans is known, but the mechanisms are not readily apparent. However, one of the most frequent experimental ELF results is involved with immunological responses. Histamine-related diseases such as arthritis, allergies, asthma, smooth muscle spasms, emboli, angina pectoris or edema are the most frequent diseases which are supposedly influenced by electric and magnetic field shielding [64] in those persons with EHS.

It appears that long-term EMF exposure may act as a promoter, an immune system irritant (in addition to any chemical sensitivities present), thus overloading the body's defense mechanisms. Environmentally ill (EI) persons with compromised immune systems often find that EMF transients are one more irritating factor to avoid. The manifesting symptoms may then vary over a wide range, depending upon individual immune system factors, health history, home/work stress situations, and environment..not just cancer or alzheimers increases, but increases in a host of dis-eases often considered 'minor', e.g., allergies, headaches, fatigue, insomnia, etc.

If the above are valid, and an EHS subject profile is not clearly determined for specific group evaluations, then epidemeological studies will be diluted by the general population and confidence ratios will remain low [65]. It appears the general population is not yet seriously affected enough in a specific medical area, to make a case for widespread serious concern in the medical community, yet, because we do not know how many manifesting minor symptoms may be caused by long-term exposure (which may be precursors for major symptoms in years to come!).

News about symptoms, supposedly caused by EMF long-term exposures, have caused popular concern, controversy, confusion, and much initial condemnation without investigation. The public concern about environmental pollution has stimulated government, industry, and legal actions to investigate the biological effects of power frequency EMFs [9-11, 15, 27, 56, 57, 59, 66-73].

Research programs are finally beginning to investigate these anomalous raw signals (transient spikes & surges). We are becoming more aware in recent months of the sensitivity of various life forms to EMF via their sensory system reactions [49], immune system effects [51, 53-55, 74], allergy reactions [9, 56], behaviors, etc. Night time EMF effects have been discovered which reduce brain pineal melatonin hormone production, which in turn affects immune system efficiency, especially in ill and/or older people [53, 54].

Potential Initiating/Promoting Factorss [56, 75]

Individuals with multiple sensitivities, including EMFs, have reported reactions to various types of electrical equipment, including powerlines, transformers, electronic office equipment such as typewriters and computer terminals, video display terminals (VDT's), household appliances (such as hair dryers), telephones, battery powered analog watches, digital clocks and other digital electronic devices, and fluorescent lights.

Most common symptoms are: [75]

Skin symptoms [59] manifest as irregular reddening, pinkness or redness, rashes, blushing, prickly sensations, aches, tightness, itching and sensitivity to light.

Nervous and Behavior symptoms [38, 73, 76-78] include dizziness, prickly sensations (like sunburn), flu-like feelings, fatigue, weakness, headaches, breathing problems, perspiration, depression, irritability, heart palpitations, difficulties in concentration and forgetfulness, brain seizure induction. Porphyria appears to have a connection (ties in to chemical intolerance, which often accompanies EHS).

Most of those who are hypersensitive experience the problems in connection with work at computer terminals (sometimes laptops), but other sources can also be named: fluorescent lights or electrical wiring and machinery. Many sensitive people develop extremely serious problems and have to take extended sick leaves. In Sweden about 120 cases of occupational illness due to computer terminal work are reported annually: 30 to 40 of these cases concern hypersensitivity to electrical fields.

Determining Extent and Nature of EHS

An Example Study:[56] -- A four phase study was performed to find an effective method to evaluate electromagnetic field (EMF) sensitivity of patients.

a. This study developed criteria for controlled testing using an environment low in chemical, particulate, and EMF pollution. Monitoring devices were used in an effort to ensure that extraneous EMF would not interfere with the tests. Baseline tests were conducted and data gathered on the environment and the patients. The autonomic nervous system functions were tested with a binocular iriscorder which electronically measured and recorded pupil area, time at which constriction and dilation occurred, and rate of constriction/dilation.

b. A single-blind challenge was used on 100 patients who complained of EMF sensitivity. This involved a sweep-function square wave generator (0.1 Hz to 5 MHz) which exposed subjects to a series of fields ranging from 0 to 5 MHz in frequency, There were 21 active frequency challenges (0.1 Hz through 5 MHz, plus 5 blank placebos) per person. Twenty-five patients were found who were sensitive to the fields, but did not react to the blanks.

c. These were compared in double-blind tests to 25 healthy naïve volunteer controls, using the same frequency and blank parameters. None of the volunteers reacted to any challenge, active or blank, but 16 of the EMF-sensitive patients (64%) had positive signs and symptoms scores, plus autonomic nervous system changes.

d. The 16 EMF-sensitive patients were rechallenged twice to the frequencies to which they were most sensitive during the previous challenge.

The active frequency was found to be positive in 100% of the challenges, while all of the placebo tests were negative. We concluded that this study gives strong evidence that electromagnetic field sensitivity exists, and can be elicited under environmentally-controlled conditions. When evaluating frequency response, 75% of the 16 patients reacted to 1 Hz, 75% to 2.5 Hz, 69% to 5 Hz, 69% to 10 Hz, 69% to 20 Hz, and 63% to 60 Hz. No patient reacted to all 21 of the active frequencies in the challenges.

Potentially Useful Therapies

Because individual sensitivities and manifesting symptoms seem to vary so much in response to EMF exposures, it is always best to consult with a knowledgeable physician.

Additional information, or physician references, can be obtained from:

W. J. Rea, M.D. or G. H. Ross, M.D. OR John Garvey


8345 Walnut Hill Lane, Suite 205 465 Crooked Creek Road

Dallas, TX 75231 Black Mountain, NC 28711

214-368-4132 FAX 214-691-8432 704-669-7762

An individual's life record and medical history of chemical, electrical, and environmental aspects must be obtained for perspective and determination of applicable therapies.

In general, changes in environment, diet, exercise, and stress are most likely, involving prudent avoidance of chemical, electrical and psychological factors creating the most reactions.


From 1982-86, at Martin Marietta Manned Space Systems in New Orleans, I jointly developed an electrostatic cooling process (and patent) to improve aluminum welds on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. In the 1986 final statistical test panel work on the welding process, it was necessary for me to be adjacent to the operating system several hours a day for about six months. A 25V/125A pulsed-arc welding system was used, mixed with the 35 kV and 250 ľA of the cooling corona wind air jet impinging on the cooling weld bead at the weld torch. Twice during final tests unusual dizziness forced me to briefly leave the area. Shortly after project completion I started having acute attacks of hives (urticaria) any time I ate beef, mutton, or pork (protein intolerance). Within a few minutes my joints and sinuses would begin to swell, and intensely itching wheals would erupt, spreading all over my body. The allergist said my case was unusual. I avoid red meats, because the hypersensitivity remains. No problems with poultry and sea foods; health remains excellent, otherwise. So, you can understand, based on personal experience, that I feel that the human EHS is a health issue that requires further exploration for the benefit of the public and the medical profession.


1. Liquid Crystals may play a part in:

a. The life processes of all biosystems.

b. Interactions with natural and artificial EMFs -- detection, info storage/retrieval, and stimulus/response.

c. The near-quantum energy-sensory detection capabilities of biosystems.

d. The Electromagnetic Hypersensitiity Syndrome in humans.

e. Providing many medical and psychophysiological benefits, as understanding of LCs and their interactions with complementary mechanisms increases.

2. To determine extent and nature of human sensitivities to EMFs, it will be advantageous to study in more depth, those persons who exhibit the EHS symptoms.

3. Electromagnetic therapies may emerge as the medicine of the future.


1. Are LCs basic to the understanding of how biosystems sense light (vision), temperature (hot/cold), mechanical stress (touch), chemicals (smell/taste) and EMFs? (nematic & cholesteric LC) Does biogenic magnetite play a part here?

2. Biosystem brains and bodies collect and store, during a lifetime, phenomenal amounts of retrievable data and high-speed responses to survival threats. Are the properties of LCs involved? (perhaps nematic & cholesteric supplying info input to chiral smectic 'c' ferroelecric LC, or equivalent)

3. Is there any LC connection with the genetic transmission of growth and instinctual survival information? (smectic 'c' ferroelecric LC or equivalent)

4. Since the range of EHS symptoms may be broad, and because of possible undiagnosed or misdiagnosed symptoms, how many persons may be marginally affected, in mental institutions, in hospitals, seriously incapacitated at home, or labeled as having "psychotic episodes"



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James B. Beal, B.S. (M.E.) has been a networker and writer for over 45 years on natural and artificial electromagnetic fields and geomagnetic fields and their effects on living systems. He worked in nondestructive evaluation at NASA in Huntsville AL where he pioneered thermally sensitive cholesteric LC applications for subsurface delamination detection in bonded aerospace structures. At Martin Marietta Manned Space Systems he continued NDE work on the Space Shuttle External Tank Project. During research which led to a patent on electrostatic cooling of the external tank aluminum welds, he developed an unusual allergy from exposure to the strong EMFs present. He serves on the Advisory Boards of The Monroe Institute, The Institute For The Study of Natural Systems, and The Gladys T. McGarey Medical Foundation and assisted in the formation of The Institute of Noetic Sciences. Various creative-edge topics have been published in seven book anthologies. Mr. Beal has obtained numerous grants for travel and lectures in the areas of bioelectromagnetic field effects, and the future impact of environmental EMF effects ("perils and promises"). Papers have been presented in Canada, England, Netherlands, Switzerland, Israel, Czechoslovakia, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and across America. This paper first presented Oct. 5, 1996 at the 2nd Annual Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, Texas. For details contact: James B. Beal, P.O. Box 2112, Wimberley, TX 78676, 512-847-0371, Website:,